About me »

M.Tech in Energy Technology(Pursuing) at Tezpur University
B.E. in Welding Technology from SLIET,Longowal

I am Lakhan Lal from Muzaffarpur(Bihar). I write on eclectic range of subjects including Science, Technology and social issues.Find out more...


Areas of Interest:

  • Fuel Cell
  • Renewable Energy
  • Bio Energy
  • Welding Technology

Thursday, 1 February 2018

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Picnic of Energy department(Tezpur University) 2018

In Tezpur University, even before the completion of First semester end term exam everyone decided to go for a picnic. I was staying here in the campus during winter vacation and got many advise to go for a picnic. When new year was about to start my facebook feed was full of pictures of my friends celebrating picnic at some random scenic places(We have numerous beautiful natural sights here). So finally I decided to go for it.

It is the tradition of our department to go for a picnic at the start of the every new year. Usually the M.Tech first year student organize the picnic so this year we got the opportunity to organize it.
Mahapatra sir suggested us to go for Seijosa(A place near the border of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh) and has a beautiful river coming from Arunachal side. Other side of the river is Nameri National Park which has Tigers, Elephants and many other wild life. Although we concentrated on river only due to lack of time.
Seijosa is situated on the bank of river pakke which originates in Arunachal and finally joins Brahmputra. The river is not so deep and has stony bed that makes its water remains clear. Since it flows through mountains that carry rocks, the river side is full of sand(due to smashing of rocks).
On the name of Pakke river, the Tiger reserve was named.
You can also see the footprints of animals like wild Elephant on the sand.
The place is originally inhibited by Nyishi(a tribe) people.


Seijosa is around 50 to 55 km from Tezpur University campus.
We had to prepare food there for which we had two cook. Breakfast was served there at sight itself.
After that the cook started cooking the lunch.
Barua sir started roaming inside the river which motivated me to go inside the river. Mahapatra sir was even more smart, He crossed the entire river.
Nabin sarmah sir also did same. He even learnt how to use fishnet from a fisherman.
We feel motivated and just folded our jeans and went into the river barefoot. The river bed was rocky So it was difficult for us to walk on that. Finally we crossed the river and went to the other side and there we came to know that one of my friend crossed the river just to pee(so that no one can see him).
Meanwhile our other batch mates were preparing the food at our tent we along with faculty members went to visit Nameri forest.
We were surprised to see the lush green forest.
One part of the forest comes under Assam govt. and the other part comes under Arunachal pradesh govt. . On the Arunachal side, There are some office of forest deptt. and also the residence for their staff.
Since we had limited time and we had to go for lunch so we decided return from there.
In lunch we had rice,dal, mixed vegetable, Matar paneer, Fish, chicken, salad and papad. Being a vegetarian I had limited option which I utilized in optimum way.
It was full of fun, we all decided that gain next year we will go for this type of picnic. For Our seniors, It was their last picnic.

What I noticed there is the life of people there is difficult. Poor road and remote location make it worst. While in bus I saw that most of the home has a rooftop solar panel(I think for lighting) means electricity is not reliable there. The population is distributed not dense.
Usually people going for picnic has loud sound systems. Yo can notice many poor children there dancing and running behind the bus in tons of dust.

Prof. D C Baruah Sir

Prof. D C Baruah Sir

Prof. D C Baruah Sir









Dr. Sadhan Mahapatra sir


From left: Dr. Sadhan Mahapatra, Chandan Kumar and Lakhan Lal
From Left: Chandan kumar, Debashish Mandal and Lakhan Lal


Mahapatra sir was first to cross the river








Baruah sir clicking pics and Nabin sarmah sir learning how to throw fishnet

You can see the guy running to pee

From left: Debashish Mandal(The guy who crossed the river just to pee), Rahul Talukdar and Lakhan Lal







ND Dam with sluice gate made for irrigation
Govt. once tried to build a dam over the river which can be utilized for irrigation but failed

Beautiful Seijosa

Mahapatra Sir while taking rest



Maskura Hasin

From Left: Puja Hazarika and Gaffar Ahmed

pc- Angshuman Phukan

Returning from Nameri National park
pc- Angshuman Phukan

From left: Dr. Sadhan Mahapatra and Prof. D C Baruah
pc- Angshuman Phukan

From Left: Prof. D C Barauah, Gaffar Ahmed, Sneha Acharya, Silvia Saikia, Seauji Bora, Dikhita Bharali, Labanya Baruah, Shraiya Pant, Maskura Hasin and Dr. Nabin sarmah
pc- Angshuman Phukan

Sunset at Seijosa

Sunset at Seijosa

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Thursday, 26 October 2017

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Last experiment of First semester(Tezpur University)

Today, We performed our last scheduled experiment of M.Tech(Energy Technology) first semester. We clicked some of the pictures in Biomass conversion Laboratory of Dr. Dhanpati Deka sir.
We had to find out carbon residue and calorific value of Bio Diesel and Diesel sample.
 Department of Energy, Tezpur university(Lakhan Lal, Silvia saikia, Chandan kumar, Maskura Hasin, Rahul Talukdar, debashish mandal) 1
Left to right- Silvia Saikia, Bijyoendra Sharma,Lakhan Lal,Chandan Kumar,Debashish Mandal and Rahul Talukdar


 Department of Energy, Tezpur university(Lakhan Lal, Silvia saikia, Chandan kumar, Maskura Hasin, Rahul Talukdar, debashish mandal) 2
Left to right- Silvia Saikia, Bijyoendra Sharma,Lakhan Lal,Chandan Kumar,Debashish Mandal and Rahul Talukdar
 Department of Energy, Tezpur university(Lakhan Lal, Silvia saikia, Chandan kumar, Maskura Hasin, Rahul Talukdar, debashish mandal) 3
Left to right- Rahul Talukdar, Debashish Mandal, Chandan Kumar, Maskura Hasin, Silvia Saikia and Bijyoendra Sharma
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Tuesday, 24 October 2017

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SSC Junior Engineer:Preparation strategy,books and resources

In the month of October, This year, SSC has released the notification of Junior Engineer.Closing date of online application is 17-11-2017. As per the notification Exam is from 05-01-2018.
This time Border road organisation and National Technical Research organisation(NTRO) are also recruiting through SSC JE along with CPWD, MES, central water commission and Farakka Barrage.
While applying to the SSC JE, you have to give post preference in advance.
A good preference order for Mechanical guy for SSC JE may look like:
CPWD>MES>Central Water Commission>Farakka Barrage>Border Road Organisation>NTRO

The preference order may change according to your interest. But usually people choose CPWD as their first preference because of many reasons.MES and Border road organisation both comes under ministry of defence but BRO is less selective because of its postings in border area only. 
BRO has some medical requirement. 
Preparation:
The pattern of Exam is:
Paper I(200 marks): 120 Min. Duration(Objective Type:200 questions)(Negative marking-1/4)
Paper II(300 marks): 120 Min. Duration(Conventional type)
Paper I: 100 marks-Technical questions
              50 marks- General Intelligence
              50 marks- General awareness
All the questions are of 1 marks with negative marking of 1/4.
Technical questions are asked throughout the syllabus provided by SSC JE. There is no need to study Industrial engineering because it is not a part of the syllabus.
Questions are mainly asked from the following subject and topics:
1. Fluid Mechanics and machinery: It is one of the most important subject for JEN. They ask lot of questions on this topic.Whether it is Fluid properties, Kinematics, dynamics or Boundary layer theory, Prepare these topics well. Please study Turbines and pump properly.
2. Thermodynamics and application: It is as important as Fluid. Pay special attention to topics like compressors, Rankine and brayton cycles, IC engine and vapor compression cycle.
3. Solid mechanics: This part is very easy.They ask simple questions from the entire syllabus. Important topics are generalised hooks law, relation between Elastic constants, Principal stress and strain, Bending stresses, Torsion, Pressure vessel and columns.
Also try to solve conventional problems on it. It will help you gain confidence and also help you at the time of mains.
4. Theory of machine:Cover mechanism, gear, Clutch, Flywheel, Governor and balancing.These are essential for SSC JE.
5. Production: Syllabus is very wide but you can start from casting, welding,Machining,Forming or material science.
General Awareness: It requires lot of work and time for improvement. syllabus is vast.If you are able to score in this section then you will have a clear edge over others. people scoring good marks in technical score as low as 4-5 marks in general awareness section of SSC JE.
These are the topics need to be covered:
1. Geography(Indian as well as world geography)
2. Polity(This section is comparatively easy and scoring)
3. History(First study modern history & if you have enough time then study ancient history, From SSC JE point of view both are equally important)
4. Biology(may be you are studying it for first time but biology is very important for ssc JE. Lot of questions are asked.)
5. Basic chemistry and physics
6. Ecology
7. Economics(read basic economics from any standard book and try to solve previous year question)
To have better understanding of pattern ssc question, try to attempt sets of SSC CGL. Also try to solve previous SSC CGL questions of Reasoning and General awareness.The level of questions is more or less same for SSC JE.
Lucent GK is good for beginners. To study science for SSC JE, you can prepare your notes from Lucent science.
must have books for general awareness section:
1. Lucent GK
2. Lucent general science
3. Lucent objective GK
Reasoning: the level of reasoning asked in SSC JE exam is at par with CGL.They ask questions on:
Matrix
Coding-Decoding
Word Formation
Venn Diagram
Analogy
Blood Relation
Dictionary order
Verbal Reasoning
Mirror image
Tearing the page
The no. of questions is 50. This section demands concentration and time. To score better, you should attempt this section first then move to technical section. To attempt 50 questions of general awareness hardly 7-8 minutes are needed. To finish the test in time you should attempt as much questions as you can in a time bound manner.
Test Series: I will recommend the Test series of Test Book. They have subject wise tests as well as full length tests. Subject wise tests will help you to revise the syllabus along with preparation.

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Wednesday, 9 July 2014

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What's so different about being a WELDING ENGINEER










Why to be a welding engineer??What is so special in being a welding engineer??Why can't be a normal software nerd and be a millionaire??


Here I am trying my best to answer questions that frequently comes in mind of prospecting welding engineers.

A welding Engineer is a professional engineer responsible for making & designing a joint of similar and dissimilar materials  while considering economics. He is also responsible for finding optimum parameters  of welding for a new material & process. He applies the knowledge of basic science to perform his task. 


You can see a welding engineer working in a construction company, Railways, Military, Shipyards, Offshore constructions, Defense research, Space research, Atomic Power plants, thermal power plants, Steel Plants, automobiles Sector, Pipe Line industries, Consumable & Power source making Industries etc.
Making a joint is very simple as in case of wood & very complex as in case of making a space craft.Some jobs requires enough attention & consciousness. Without them societies could not evolve & accelerated. 
Engineering is not an individual task. Its a team work. Different departments create & design different parts but the key of the success is in the perfect joining of those parts. Of course welding engineers are responsible for that. Unsuccessful task causes heavy loss in terms of man, materials, money & time. 

That's why  welding engineers are so important in any industry. There are a lot of mechanical engineer, metallurgy engineer, Electrical engineer & computer engineer but the count of welding engineer is relatively very low. India needs Approx 10000 Welding Engineer per year but only few hundred students passed out per year with a welding qualification(Btech, Mtech).  

so there is huge gap in demand & supply. 


To get a job in this field only qualification is not necessary, Knowledge is essential.  Welding engineer has to perform managerial duties also. He has to deal with each & every aspect of product. So the knowledge required by a welding engineer is interdisciplinary in nature.

If you want to become a welding engineer, you must have the knowledge of 

Electrical aspect of Welding(Power sources, automation)
Physics (Must understand the plasma physics)
Chemistry (Slag formation, chemistry of Metals, flux Formulation etc)
Mechanical engineering(design & testing of weldments)
Thermal Aspect( Weld thermal cycle Etc)& many more other aspects.


I mean, It is very interesting to study welding. It is not very much theoretical. it is practical.& performing different experiments in welding is also very much easy & interesting.People with welding engineering qualification has different roles to play like a welding engineer, Quality control engineer, Piping engineer, Metallurgist, Designer, Scientist, Professors etc.


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Thursday, 3 July 2014

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Details of Universal Electrode Holder used in Welding, Cutting, lancing, Gouging & also in Cladding (Equipped with Plasma enhancing mode)

The article is based on the information provided by the Inventor, Prof. Sunil Pandey in  his application for patent.


"AN UNIVERSAL ELECTRODE HOLDER FOR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING"
The present invention discloses an universal electrode holder for shielded metal arc welding, the electrode holder comprising a body having two ends, and an electrode housing and plunger housing characterised in that said  electrode housing has an orifice provided with an end cap, a collet, an inlet for holding powder feeding means, and a powder feeding means, and plunger housing having an orifice being provided with a spring action means
and a plunger comprising a plunger head and a plunger rod, and an inlet for holding gas feeding means, and electrical connection means. [Fig. 1]

INVENTOR:
The present invention is by Dr. Sunil Pandey, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), Hauz Khas, New Delhi -110016, India, an Indian National.


FIELD OF THE INVENTION :

The present invention relates to an electrode holder for welding, particularly to an electrode
holder for shielded metal arc welding, more particularly to an universal electrode holder for
shielded metal arc welding, even more particularly to an universal electrode holder for shielded metal arc welding and such processes and method of use thereof.


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION :

Welding is the most attractive fabrication technology in the world today and will remain
so even in the next millennium. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process will
continue to dominate the welding scene and particularly in our country, where almost 
70% welding is still done using this process.


However, in a process of welding fabrication, a fabricator or welder is generally required

to do Lancing, Cutting and Surfacing apart from conventional shielded metal arc Welding.
The major limitation of the presently known electrode holders and of the processes of
use thereof, is that a fabricator or welder has to maintain large inventories of the equipment and/or consumables related to these processes.


Particularly, he is required to maintain inventory of various types of electrode holders 

related to these processes. These compulsions put a heavy financial pressure on
fabricator or welder, else he will have to be contented with whatever he can do with
the type of equipment available in the shop.


Further limitation of the presently known electrode holders and of the processes

of use thereof, is that for welding of thick plates the fabricator or welder has to go in for
more number of passes to weld it.


Such limitations put a heavy financial pressure on many fabricator or welder, which in turn

results in making the whole industrial process unaffordable. In order to overcome the problem of un-affordability the fabricator or welder will have to be contented with whatever he can do with one type of equipment, particularly electrode holder.


Still further limitation of the presently known electrode holders and of the processes of use thereof, is that the customer is also affected by these limitations and he is forced to search for those fabricators who have all the facilities to do a complete job. In the light of these limitations a small but enterprising person can't become a successful entrepreneur, as he can not meet the requirements or needs of the customers.



Yet another limitation of the known electrode holders and related processes is that

following operations can not be performed using one of the presently known holders
which employ solid covered electrode :
1. Deposit weld beads with reduced crown height
2. Deep penetration welding
3. Cutting
4. Lancing
5. Cladding
6. Surfacing and
7. Alloying etc.
The present inventor has found that these limitations can be overcome by making the
existing welding process flexible. This means the welder should be able to do lancing, cutting, surfacing, deep penetration welding and conventional shielded metal arc 
welding etc. with minimum inventory particularly by using one electrode holder. The present inventor has further found that the required flexibility will be achieved if the existing electrode holders can have provision for feeding :
1. Plasma forming gases to obtain deeper penetrations,
2 Oxygen during arcing to oxidise the metal to do cutting and lancing operation.
3. Powders during welding to do surfacing, cladding, etc.


NEED OF THE INVENTION :

Therefore, there is a need to develop a universally acceptable electrode holder and of the
process of use thereof, which would overcome some of the limitations of the presently known electrode holders and of the processes of use thereof as stated herein above. The particular need is to have an electrode holder which can universally perform above stated processes.


OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION :

This is the main object of the present invention to make a disclosure of a universally
acceptable electrode holder and of process of use thereof, which would overcome some of 
the limitations of the presently known such electrode holders and of such processes of use
thereof, as stated herein above.


This is further an object of the present invention to make a disclosure ox a electrode holder

and of the process of use thereof, having a flexibility of feeding a gas, like shielding or
cutting etc., and of a powder, like metallic or ceramic or combination of alloying elements 
etc. through a tubular covered electrode.


This is another an object of the present invention to propose for an electrode holder and 

of the process of use thereof, which will allow a complete flexibility to a fabricator or welder
to carry out welding, lancing, cutting, surfacing processes etc. employing the presently
disclosed electrode holder.


Further an object of the present invention is to have an electrode holder and of the process

of use thereof, which will have provision of holding a tubular covered electrode through which a gas or mixture of gasses or a powder or both - a gas and powder be fed to the weld pool.


Still another an object of the present invention is to make a disclosure of an electrode holder

which is provided with a provision for feeding a gas, which can be a shielding gas or gas for 
cutting & lancing operation.
Yet another an object of the present invention is to make a disclosure of an electrode holder
which is provided with a provision for feeding a powder, which can be metallic or ceramic or
a combination of alloying elements for surfacing purposes.
This is still another an object of the present invention to make a disclosure of an electrode
holder which is provided with a provision for feeding a gas or powder both through a tubular 
covered electrode which inturn can be fed to the weld pool.
Other objects and preferred embodiments of the.present invention will be more apparent from the following description when read in conjunction with the accompanying figure which is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION :
According to the present invention an electrode holder for welding, particularly an electrode
holder for shielded metal arc welding, more particularly an universally acceptable electrode
holder for shielded metal arc welding, even more particularly an universal electrode holder
for shielded metal arc welding, which is universally acceptable not only in conventional 
welding but also suitable in carrying out special processes like lancing, cutting, surfacing, 
deep penetration welding etc. with minimum inventory, particularly with one electrode holder
only, more particularly with presently disclosed electrode holder only, wherein the said 
electrode holder, herein after referred to as "holder", comprises of a body having two end
and two parts, wherein one of the parts referred to as an electrode housing having an orifice
is provided with an end cap, a collet, an inlet for holding powder feeding means, and a
powder feeding means, and another part referred to as plunger housing having an orifice
is provided with a spring action means and a plunger comprising a plunger head and a
plunger rod, and an inlet for holding gas feeding means and a gas feeding means, and
electrical connection means.The preferred embodiments of the present invention will be more apparent when the following description is read in conjunction with the accompanying figure which is not intended to limit scope of the present invention.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION :

Accordingly an electrode holder for welding, lancing, surfacing, cutting, deep penetration 
welding processes etc. is disclosed wherein said holder, comprises of a body 1 having two 
end referred to as 'left end' 2 and 'right end' 3 and two parts referred to as electrode housing 4 and plunger housing 5 characterised in that said electrode housing 4 having an orifice 6 is provided with an end cap 7 and a collet 8 to hold an etectrode, preferably an hollow electrode, more preferably a tubular covered electrode 9 having an orifice 10, and an inlet 11 for holding a powder feeding means and a powder feeding means 12, for feeding a powder, having a powder flow control means 13 to control flow rate of powder and an orifice 14 for flow of powder from said means 12 to said orifice 6 provided in said electrode housing 4, wherein said collet 8 sits in the orifice 6 provided in said electrode housing 4  towards left end 2 of the body 1 and said end cap 7 is fitted onto said electrode housing 4 towards left end 2 of the body 1 after placing collet 8 in the orifice 6. The collet 8 is also provided with an orifice 15 which aligns with orifice 6 provided in electrode housing 4 and orifice 10 provided in electrode 9.
The another part referred to as plunger housing 5 having an orifice 16 is provided with a spring
action means 17 and a plunger 18 comprising a plunger head 19 and a plunger rod 20, and
an inlet 21 for holding gas feeding means and a gas feeding means 22 and electrical
connection means 23, wherein said spring action means 17 is helical spring 17, said plunger
head 19 sits in orifice 16 towards left end 2 of the body 1 to close orifice 6 when gas flow is
not required, and plunger rod 20, provided with an longitudinal groove 24 and a gas flow 
control means 25, sits in orifice 16 towards right end 3 of the body 1 and projects out of the
opening 26 of the plunger housing 5 and such opening 26 is a continuous part of the orifice
16. The projected end of the plunger rod 20 is provided with a gas flow control means 25
consisting of a control knob 25 fitted onto plunger rod 20. The control knob 25 alongwith
spring action means 17 makes the said plunger 18 movable in left and
right directions to allow and close the flow of gas through orifice 6 provided in electrode
housing 4.
In accordance to the preferred embodiment of the present invention the plunger head 19 and plunger rod 20 are preferably continuous parts of plunger 18, that is these parts (19 and 20)  are preferably made form a single piece of selected material. However, two separate parts can be joined together by any known means. An 'O' ring 27 or a gas sealing means is provided in the central part 28 of the plunger 18 to provide gas sealing. The 'O' ring 27 sits in a groove (not visible in the figure due to sitting of 'O' ring 27) provided onto central part 28 of the plunger 
18 and stops flow of gas towards right end 3 of the body 1. In accordance to preferred
embodiment of the present invention the spring action means 17 fits on the plunger rod 20 
and sits towards the central part 28 of the plunger 13.
In accordance to one of the preferred embodiments of the present invention the projecting part of the plunger rod 20 is provided with threads for better fitting in the opening 26 of the plunger housing 5 and to hold the gas flow control knob 25 and the part supporting the spring action means 17 is non-threaded.
In accordance to preferred embodiment of this invention the gas feeding means 22 consisting  a gas inlet nipple 22 having an orifice 26 to allow the flow of gas are provided towards left end 2 of the body 1. The gas feeding means 22 preferably provided with male threads sit in respective inlet 21 which inturn is preferably provided with female threads to hold the gas feeding means 22.
In accordance to one of the preferred embodiments of this invention plunger housing 5 is
fitted onto electrode housing 4 by known means preferably by threading mechanism or 
by push on mechanism, more preferably by threading mechanism. However, a single piece
body 1 comprising electrode housing 4 and plunger housing 5 can also be used. The 
advantage of two piece body 1 is to have ease of fabrication of the device, because the
orifice 6 and orifice 16 are of varying diameters. The orifice 6 has lower diameter in the
central part and higher diameter towards opposite ends. The diameter towards said left 
end 2 is to suit the dimensions of collet 8 and diameter towards right end 3 of the body 1
is to suit diameter of the plunger head 19 part of which sits in it (6). The orifice 16 has higher  diameter towards left end 2 of the body 1 to fit onto electrode housing 4 and lower diameter in the central part to house central part 28 of the plunger 18 and further lower diameter at an opening 26 to ho!d plunger rod 20.
The electrical means 23 are as known in the art, preferably these comprises of insulated
handle 23 fixed onto plunger housing 5 of the body 1 by any known means preferably by
mounting nut 29 having threads for tightening of the handle 23 through tightening means 30.The power cable is attached to the handle 23 at an end 31 opposite to the body 1 by means  of cable tightening screws 32.
The body of the presently disclosed holder is preferably made from Brass. However, other 
conducting alloys which can retain shape and are lightweight can also be used. 
In accordance to one of the preferred embodiments the flow of the powder is maintained perpendicular to take full advantage of gravity for feeding powders through a tubular electrode while performing the down-hand, vertical-down, flat or horizontal arc welding. To ensure the positive feeding, the powder is made to flow through a venturi.
In accordance to one of the preferred embodiments the powder can be any preferably 
metallic or ceramic or combination of alloying elements and the gas can be any gas known or used in the art for welding, lancing, surfacing, cutting processes etc.In accordance to the preferred embodiment of this invention orifice 6 provided in electrode housing 4, orifice 10 of the tubular covered electrode 9, orifice 14 provided in powder feeding means 12, orifice 16 provided in plunger housing 5 orifice 26 provided in gas feeding means 22 align with each other allow mixing of the gas and/or powder in weld pool.The presently disclosed electrode holder is flexible and in combination with tubular covered electrode allows the following major advantages over existing shielded metal arc welding electrode holders and their respective processes :
1. Conventional SMAW: Conventional SMAW can be performed in the following ways:
a) Using commercially available solid covered electrodes.
b) Using hollow / tubular covered electrodes.


2. Deep penetration SMAW: Deeper weld penetrations are obtained when a plasma

forming gas is fed through the orifice of the tubular electrode during welding. This
advantage is not possible with the conventional process. The weld beads made with this 
process will have reduced crown height and angle of convexity due to high centre line 
velocity, which accelerates the detached droplets towards the weld pool. Reduced metal deposition rate also ensures better load carrying capacity.
Orifice gases such as argon, helium, carbon dioxide or mixtures of gases will form fully
ionised plasma at the tip of the tubular electrode. This increases the heat of the arc and 
coupled with high centre line velocity, which accelerates the detached droplets, results in
deeper penetration. The penetrations observed during the tests were 2~3 times more than the conventional arc welding.
The process may be suitable for pipe welding in place of celiulosic electrodes for higher
penetration.
3. Oxy-Arc Cutting: Rapid oxidation takes place when oxygen is fed through an orifice of
the tubular electrode. The oxygen fed at high pressure partly forms the plasma and the 
remaining oxygen is used in oxygen process. This is a smooth fast clean cutting operation
at very low currents. This is not possible with the conventional SMAW process.


4 Oxy-Arc Lancing: The oxygen, when fed at high pressure through the tubular electrode 

cause a very rapid oxidation. In this mode the process is used for lancing. This gives 
smooth fast clean lancing operation without any limitations of the conventional oxygen lancing. Preheating is done by establishing the arc and it's heat.


5. Surfacing /-coating: When powders are fed through the orifice, the process can be used 

for surfacing, cladding and buttering at very low cost. The present invention has been described with the help of the accompanying figure which is not intended to limit scope
of the invention. It is obvious to those working in the art that various modifications are possible without deviating from scope of the present invention.


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